Opium wars and treaties of nanjing

Opium Wars

These treaty ports became key crossroads for Western and Chinese culture, as they were the first locations where foreigners and foreign trading operations could own land in China.

The opium trade was later legalised in the Treaties of Tianjinwhich China concluded after the Second Opium War resulted in another defeat for the Qing dynasty.

The huge opium liability the opium was worth millions of pounds sterlingand increasingly shrill demands from merchants in China, India, and London when they discovered their profits were destroyed, gave politicians in Great Britain the excuse they were looking for to act more forcefully to expand British imperial interests in China.

Even though new ports were opened to British merchants after the first Opium War, the Chinese dragged their feet on implementing the agreements, and legal trade with China remained limited.

For years, the Chinese had conducted their foreign policy through the tribute system, in which foreign powers wishing to trade with China were required first to bring a tribute to the emperor, acknowledging the superiority of Chinese culture and the ultimate authority of the Chinese ruler.

Under the terms of the Treaty of Nanking 29 Augustsigned as seems fitting now aboard a British warship at the mouth of the Yangtze, and a further "supplementary" treaty inChina ceded the island of Hong Kong to Great Britain, opened five "Treaty" ports Canton, Amoy, Foochow, Shanghai, and Ningbo to Western trade and residence, granted Great Britain most-favoured nation status for trade, and paid nine million dollars in reparations to the merchants whose 20, chests of opium Lin Ze-xu had destroyed.

China was compelled to abolish trading monopolies and limit tariffs to five per cent. Nevertheless, the treaties of —43 left several unsettled issues.

Opium Wars

But the problem only grew worse. They tried to monopolize the market, which choked private sector industries. The treaty provided extraordinary benefits to the British, including: Between and the Chinese Nationalists succeeded in persuading the Western powers to return tariff autonomy to China, but extraterritorial privileges were not relinquished by Britain, France, and the United States until Private enterprises should be formed without government interference and many different companies needed to be created so that there would be competition within the market place.

Once addicted, people would often do almost anything to continue to get access to the drug. Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed.

Among Chinese officials, the aftermath of the war led to a bitter political struggle between two factions: For China, the Treaty of Nanjing provided no benefits. Not to be outdone, U. Schaffer Library of Drug Policy.

It also led to the Qing government sending Lin Zexu into exile. Inafter the Chinese had failed to ratify the Tianjin agreements, the British and French resumed the war, captured Beijing, and forced the Chinese to sign the Beijing Conventionin which they agreed to carry out the initial settlements.

More to the point, British representatives in Guangzhou requested that merchants turn over their opium to Lin, guaranteeing that the British government would compensate them for their losses. Best viewed in x resolution with Mozilla Firefox. He also demanded that foreign companies British companies, in particular turn over their supplies of opium in exchange for tea.

Also, the fact that they had signed the Treaty of Nanking before exhausting all options of resistance discredited the government. Wallbank, Taylor, et al.

While Chinese officials earnestly entreated Sir Henry Pottinger to cut the problem off at its source by recommending that the British government ban the cultivation of the poppy in India, Sir Henry argued that, as long as there remained substantial numbers of opium-addicts and corrupt customs officers in China, prohibiting the cultivation of opium in India "would merely throw the market into other hands" cited by Ssu-Yu Teng, p.

Farmers that had been producing food switched to tea or silk. China had to cede the territory of Hong Kong to British control, open treaty ports to trade with foreigners, and grant special rights to foreigners operating within the treaty ports.

Pottinger sent this old draft treaty on shore, with the letter s struck out of islands and the words Hong Kong placed after it. Ironically, the Qing Government had fully supported the clauses on extraterritoriality and most-favored nation status in the first treaties in order to keep the foreigners in line.

No sooner had peace been negotiated than merchants began to hawk opium at fire-sale prices, and the conclusion of the Second Opium War removed all residual restraints on the trafficking of the drug as the Chinese themselves began poppy cultivation: Arguably, without such a massive injection of cheap labour the transcontinental railways of the United States and Canada would not have been completed so quickly and economically.

While the British and French used military power to convince China to accept the new treaty agreements, U. Inthe Chinese emperor, already angry that opium traders were breaking local laws and increasing addiction and smuggling, discovered that members of his army and government and even students were engaged in smoking opium.

Lin then hired Chinese men to destroy the opium by mixing it with lime and salt and dumping it into the bay.

Treaty of Nanjing

This caused the textile industry to lose quite a bit of money.China lost the Opium Wars, and this was the first of many "unequal" treaties. Terms of the Treaty of Nanjing China had to open all ports to Britain, give Hong Kong (the best port) to Britain, pay for the destroyed Opium, and give Britain the Right of Extraterritoriality.

Treaty of Nanjing, (August 29, ) treaty that ended the first Opium War, the first of the unequal treaties between China and foreign imperialist powers.

Treaty of Nanjing

China paid the British an indemnity, ceded the territory of Hong Kong, and agreed to establish a “fair and reasonable” tariff. The Opium Wars in the midth century were a critical juncture in modern Chinese history.

The first Opium War was fought between China and Great Britain from to In the second Opium War, from toa weakened China fought both Great Britain and France. It served as an American counterpart to the Anglo-Chinese Treaty of Nanjing that ended the First Opium War in The Opium War and these treaties were emblematic of an era in which Western powers tried to gain unfettered access to Chinese products and markets for European and U.S.

Unequal treaty

trade. Treaty of Nanjing: Treaty of Nanjing, treaty (August 29, ) that ended the first Opium War, the first of the unequal treaties between China and foreign imperialist powers.

The terms included China paying the British an indemnity and ceding the territory of Hong Kong, while British merchants were allowed greater trade opportunities. It served as an American counterpart to the Anglo-Chinese Treaty of Nanjing that ended the First Opium War in The Opium War and these treaties were emblematic of an era in which Western powers tried to gain unfettered access to Chinese products and markets for European and U.S.

trade.

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Opium wars and treaties of nanjing
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